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Asbestos testing and materials characterization

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INTRODUCTION


AES Environnement offers expertise services certified research of asbestos fibers in asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in materials likely to contain asbestos (MSCA) as well as services for the counting of fibers suspended in the air; Compliance areas, daily tests and final tests. You can visit the National Public Health Institute of Quebec website in order to know the reasons why it makes sense to perform the asbestos testing and characterization of materials.

  • SAMPLING AND IDENTIFICATION SERVICES OF MATERIALS THAT MAY CONTAIN OF ASBESTOS IN COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS
  • SAMPLING AND IDENTIFICATION SERVICES OF MATERIALS THAT MAY CONTAIN OF ASBESTOS FOR INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT AND HEAVY MACHINERY
  • SAMPLING AND IDENTIFICATION SERVICES OF MATERIALS THAT MAY CONTAIN OF ASBESTOS FOR MARITIME, RAILROAD AND AVIATION INDUSTRIES
  • SAMPLING AND IDENTIFICATION SERVICES OF MATERIALS THAT MAY CONTAIN OF ASBESTOS IN HOUSES, MULTIPLEX AND RETIREMENT HOMES
  • ON SITES AIRBORNE ASBESTOS SAMPLING SERVICES AND CERTIFIED FIBER COUNTING FOR CONFORMITY TESTS DURING AFTER ASBESTOS REMOVAL
  • SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS SERVICES OF ASBESTOS CONTENT IN THERMAL INSULATION AND FLOCKING INSULATION / THERMAL ISOLATORS
  • SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS SERVICES OF PRESUMED ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIAL (PACM) AND ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS (ACM)


RECOGNIZED METHODS


IRSST method 244-3 (MLP) - MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION IN POLARIZING MICROSCOPE AND COLOUR RELEASE

Depending on the case and in order to extract the fibers, the samples were subjected to a mild mechanical grinding. Particles and fibers produced were transferred on slides, covered with a coverslip and bathed in liquid of suitable refractive index in order to observe the color dispersion. The optical properties orthoscopic and conoscopic samples are also used if they allow complete characterization.


IRSST method 243-1 (PCM) - MICROSCOPY OPTICAL PHASE CONTRAST

Provides a good indicator of exposure in workplaces where the type of fiber in air is the predominant asbestos. Samples are obtained by using a conductive tape with extension provided with a membrane made of mixed cellulose esters (ECM). The sampling rate is variable for measuring a weighted average exposure value in industry to measure the concentration of fibers in some public buildings such dusty environments.


ELAP Method 198.4 (TEM) - MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION MICROSCOPY

Method by transmission electron microscopy for the identification and quantification of asbestos in bulk samples nonfriable linked by organic materials. The analyzes are carried out by electron microscopy with the FEI Tecnai Twin TEM and EDAX Genesis System using analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDXA) and by the choice of electron diffraction patterns (SAED) for the recognition of species of asbestos fibers.


AES ENVIRONNEMENT MEETS STANDARDS : EPA, CSST and IRSST

AES Environnement meets the standards of the American agency EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), the IRSST (Robert Sauvé Institute for Occupational Safety & Health) and CSST (Commission on Health and Safety at Work). It is based on the principles of the sampling protocol drafted by the EPA that rely IRSST and the CSST to carry out asbestos surveys of buildings. The outline of this procedure define a minimum number of samples to be taken depending on the size of a single homogeneous material met. In addition, the EPA advises avoiding hire one contractor to carry out the remedial work and air quality tests, because this situation is in itself a potential conflict of interest.

EXPERTISE AND QUALIFICATIONS


Our characterization of services and materials sampling Likely Contain Asbestos (MSCA) are executed under the responsibility of a senior environmental technician in phase 2 & 3. The Head team graduated B. Sc Environment and has over 15 years of experience in asbestos construction. He specializes in characterization of materials (ACM / MSCA) and air quality, as such, it is accredited by the IRSST as a counter recognized asbestos fibers. In addition, he is a specialist and trainer in OSH and accredited ASP for construction sites.

Building materials containing asbestos
Building materials containing asbestos

CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS IN BUILDINGS IN QUEBEC

In short…


And if asbestos was present in your premises?

Asbestos has long been used as thermal insulation ( zonolite ), acoustic and electric . Since the mid- 1980s, its use was restricted and marked , given the impact of asbestos on health.


Employers - did you know that ?

Deadline to comply with the regulation and enforcement on safe management of asbestos in buildings : June 6, 2015 ( inspection every 2 years ) Tenant or owner of the building where your employees are, this concerns you too.


It's never too late…

  • 1. Inspect building :
    • a. To locate the bulk materials ( flocking ) containing asbestos ( Built before February 15th, 1990)
    • b. To locate the insulating materials ( insulating ) containing asbestos Built before May 20th, 1999)
  • 2. Keep a register of materials likely to contain asbestos or containing.
  • 3. Disclose information to register anyone planning to work.

Attention !

The CSST may perform inspections. Some of offense could then be issued.


Prove the opposite!

… In obtaining :

  • A data sheet or rating , which establishes the composition of flocking , and heat or the date of installation
  • A sampling report complies

How does this affect you ?

You plan to work ? Make check the possible presence of asbestos in materials such as drywall , ceiling tiles, etc ... If necessary, asbestos removal work is required before your planned work . Also, protect your workers and inform them of the situation and the possible risk to asbestos dust . A minimum number of samples to be taken depending on the size of a single homogeneous material met.

ABSTRACT

Regulations and application. Deadline for employers regarding the safe management of asbestos: June 6, 2015. The Quebec legislation provides for the identification of materials Likely Contain Asbestos MSCA and the establishment of safe work procedures before any type of work likely emit asbestos dust. All employers and employees in Quebec are subject to that legislation. In June 2013, the Health and Safety Regulations of Work1 (hereinafter, the "Regulation") was amended to impose new requirements on employers for safe management of asbestos and these have until June 6, 2015 to comply with these new requirements. Since the deadline of 6 June 2015 has now reached all employers covered shall have completed the inspection of their buildings. After June 6, 2015, the CSST should conduct inspections, to ensure that employers have complied with the new standards and statements of offense will then be issued in the event this would not be the case.


IN CONTEXT

Asbestos has long been used as thermal insulation, acoustic and electric. Thus, numerous buildings in Quebec contain materials containing asbestos. However, since the mid- 1980s, its use has been restricted and marked, given the impact of asbestos on health. The Regulations contain standards relating to asbestos for many years, but these standards did not require employers to carry out a preventive risk management related to asbestos.


NEW REQUIREMENTS IMPLEMENTED BY REGULATION

The Regulations now require employers to inspect the buildings where their employees work :

  • In the case of buildings constructed prior to February 15, 1990, inspect the building to locate flocking containing asbestos and check the status of the materials. Flocking is a mixture of friable materials applied by spraying to cover a surface.
  • For buildings built before May 20, 1999, inspect the building to locate thermal insulation containing asbestos and check the status of the materials. The insulation is an insulating material covering a facility or equipment to prevent loss of heat.

It is important to note that these obligations relating to inspection applies to all employers, whether they are owners or tenants of the building where their workers are located.

In cases where the employer is a tenant of the building, it should agree with the owner on the responsibility for the cost of inspections and, if necessary, the required patches. However, the responsibility rests solely on the shoulders of the employer under the new regulation and not on the shoulders of the building owners.


Furthermore, note that the Regulation sets up a presumption of the presence of asbestos in fireproofing and heat insulation, unless the employer demonstration to the contrary. It is possible to reverse the presumption by providing documentary evidence (eg . Data sheet establishing the composition of the materials ) or a sampling report made ​​in accordance with the Regulations.


Initial inspection of sprayed asbestos and thermal insulation must be completed no later than June 6, 2015 and every two years thereafter. An exception to this inspection schedule is provided in the case where the insulating and fireproofing containing asbestos are fully enclosed in a permanent and tight fiber structure and that access to flocking and thermal insulation is only possible by a destructive operation of the structure.


Besides flocking and lagging, the Regulation also contains rules on all materials and products that contain or may contain asbestos.

In the case where an employer intends to carry out work that may emit dust, it must first verify the presence of asbestos in materials or products likely to contain (eg . Gypsum tile ceiling, etc.) and in the event that they contain asbestos, take the necessary measures to protect workers. The Regulation also imposes an obligation to inform the workers likely to be exposed to asbestos dust.


Note that when the materials which he previously mentioned are in a condition likely to release dust containing asbestos fibers, repairs will be made immediately, and in accordance with the provisions of the Safety Code for jobs of construction2.


Once the characterization performed by a professional, the owner will be able to determine if asbestos removal work is required before the planned work. Generally, plaster consists of two layers, either the base layer called "cement plaster" grayish color, and the white topcoat. Usually, asbestos is in the base layer, but it may happen that intermediate and finish coats also contain. That is why it is important to take samples at depth to extract all the layers.


It is also essential to sample on original plaster surfaces and avoid renovated areas that can skew the results. A representative characterization of a floor or likely to contain asbestos building requires compliance with a procedure recognized by the provincial authorities. The sampling protocol drafted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States and on which is based, in Quebec, the Commission on Health and Safety (CSST) is used to conduct the surveys of asbestos in buildings. The outline of this procedure define a minimum number of samples to be taken depending on the size of a single homogeneous material.


DEMONSTRATION

Flocking and thermal insulation are presumed to contain asbestos, subject to proof to the contrary by any of the following means:

  • Verifiable background information, such as a technical data sheet or safety data sheet, which establishes the composition of sprayed asbestos and thermal insulation or date of installation;
  • A sampling report and consistent with the results of an analysis of a sufficient number of representative samples for help reveal the presence of asbestos in the flocking and the thermal insulation in accordance with Article of the law.

LABORATORY ANALYSIS AND COMPLIANCE


Analysis of samples must be carried out according to the methods specified in "the workplace air contaminants Sampling Guide", published by the Robert-Sauvé research institute in occupational health and safety at work as it reads at the time it is applied, or a method that achieves an equivalent accuracy. According to the analytical method used, a result of greater concentration is equivalent to a trace of asbestos concentration of at least 0.1%. The laboratory conducting the analysis must participate in an interlaboratory quality control program.


The analyzes carried out in laboratories accredited by the Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and the Fight against Climate Change (MDDELCC) in Quebec. All collected samples are analyzed in a laboratory and approved by specialized microbiology microbiologists. Laboratory technicians are certified by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Canada (CMHC). All laboratory operations are carried out according to international standard ISO/IEC 17025.


All sampling methods comply with the standards and regulations of the Health Research Institute and safety of Quebec (IRSST) and the regulations on health and safety at work of Health Canada. The AES Environment sampling technicians are continuously trained according to the protocols specified by the lab.


RESULTS

Flocking or insulation which comes with a sample concentration of asbestos is at least 0.1% is deemed to contain. When a test result conducted by a certified laboratory turned out positive, you are obliged to take corrective measures flocking, and the insulating linings may contain asbestos in loss of integrity, you must make adjustments. Applicable corrective options regarding Likely Materials Containing Asbestos (MSCA) are:


  • Locking up MSCA/MCA in a permanent structure;
  • Coating or impregnating MSCA/MCA with a binder material;
  • Cover the MSCA/MCA of a tight material fibers;
  • Reset MSCA/MCA according to the protocols specified for this purpose.

STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT

In order to curb the risks posed by asbestos, those present on the same construction site must work closely together. In smaller projects, it is strongly recommended to oversee the work by specialized staff: engineering services, architects, engineers responsible for the work, contractors and sub- contractors. In large-scale works, a specialized essentially proves asbestos management consultant to establish working procedures to supervise and check the methods of removal, and perform air sampling required by the regulation.


CLASSIFICATION OF WORK

Any manipulation or plaster operation likely to contain asbestos, no matter whether major or minor, requires rigorous monitoring procedures provided Asbestos risk Low, Moderate, High, or High Lite as described in section 3.23 of the Safety Code for the construction work, s-2.1, r.6. Since the risk level allowed depends on the amount of debris generated by the demolition, an evaluation of their total volume is required before work begins. Thus, drill plaster is considered at risk if the Low equipment with which one works is equipped with a suction system with high efficiency (HEPA) filters, and that it is placed directly at the source of the emission waste; but that act is Moderate risk if the intervention generates a volume of debris less than 1 cu. By against the opening or the complete demolition of the wall and/or ceiling creates a high density gypsum debris. In this major type of intervention, the risk is considered High Lightened when the volume of chalky debris occurring 1 cu. and 10 cfs and High when the amount exceeds 10 cu. Regardless of the level of risk generated by this type of work, they require the installation of waterproof speakers working under negative pressure as well as lock and/or decontamination speakers. Work classified Low and Moderate risk can be performed by maintenance employees who received the prescribed training and possessing the tools and personal protective equipment required, while work at risk Lite High, and High must be booked, as stipulated provincial law, to specialized contractors with the necessary experience and adequately trained staff. The Safety Code for the construction work requires the mastery of many theoretical points by these specialists, here are the details:


  • The effects of asbestos on health;
  • The rights and obligations of workers;
  • Methods of prevention and control;
  • The general obligations of the contractor;
  • The methods and safe work practices;
  • The applicable standards and the sampling to be done;
  • The tasks to be performed and the equipment or tools used ;
  • The means and individual and collective protective equipment.

REPORT OF SAMPLING

The employer must obtain a sampling report when samples are taken for analysis on flocking and thermal insulation. Such report shall contain the following information:


  • The name and qualification of the person responsible for sampling report;
  • Each and every flocking insulation, a list of samples and their location;
  • The sample analysis report; the analysis method used;
  • The name and address of the laboratory which conducted the analysis and identification of inter laboratory quality control program to which it participates.

The Regulation also provides that employers must set up a register containing minimally the following information:


  • Date of Inspection
  • The location and condition of the sprayed asbestos
  • The location and condition of the insulating
  • The location and condition of other asbestos-containing materials
  • When information is available and joined the register, the absence of asbestos
  • When information is available and joined the register, the type of asbestos
  • When required, the date and description of any actions or work performed on these materials

If a corporate move, the register should be transmitted to the subsequent owner or tenant, to ensure the transfer of information.

SERVICES OFFERED BY AES ENVIRONMENT


CHARACTERIZATION MATERIALS

Healthy management of materials containing asbestos (MSCA/MCA) begins with the complete characterization of a building and its mechanical components. Our services include characterization of the sampling and analysis of materials likely to contain asbestos, and the identification of MCA based on location criteria, accessibility, condition and friability. All these information are then carefully combined report in an electronic form of a computer database.


MANAGEMENT PROGRAM OF ASBESTOS

The characterization of the MSCA/MCA is the starting point to establish an efficient program of asbestos management. A good asbestos management program will include recommendations on actions to be taken gradually to a vessel can operate optimally in the context of its daily operation, regular maintenance or when it will enter in its renovation phases.


The asbestos management program recommends (if applicable) any member of your staff will be trained so that the asbestos management is partly supported internally. Your management plan will help you assess what will be the most cost effective solutions in the short and long term in the removal, containment and encapsulation.


  • MSCA lock them in a permanent structure (containment);
  • MSCA coating or impregnating a binder material (encapsulation);
  • Cover the MSCA a tight material fibers (encapsulation/containment);
  • Remove MSCA according to the protocols prescribed for this purpose (permanent removal).

THE RANGE OF OUR SERVICES

  • Characterization of buildings for Likely Materials Containing Asbestos (MSCA);
  • Characterization of buildings for Materials Containing Asbestos (MCA);
  • Characterization of buildings for fireproofing and insulating;
  • Characterization of buildings for demolition (+ Pb , Hg, PBC);
  • Partial characterization of buildings for renovation by end zones;
  • Sampling and analysis of tests required by the law;
  • Air sampling before, during and after the asbestos removal;
  • Samples of insulation materials in specific areas;
  • Samples of insulation materials, including vermiculite;
  • Approved laboratory analysis of MSCA/MCA collected in bulk;
  • Inventory System hazardous materials open spreadsheet;
  • Drafting of characterization reports with recommendations;
  • Editorial asbestos management programs;
  • Customized training of workers and professionals;
  • Daily monitoring of asbestos removal;
  • Checking the tightness of the containment walls;
  • Report and register on the safe management of asbestos.

SOURCES OF ASBESTOS IN BUILDINGS


Asbestos is the name given to a number of natural minerals, fibrous and flexible high tensile strength which are provided with a high resistance to heat (incombustible infusible) and many chemicals. It is because of these characteristics that asbestos has been used in over 2500 different construction products during the last century. Very popular between the 1950s and 1980s, this fibrous rock is found in large majority in homes and commercial buildings that were built or renovated during that period, regardless of the environment, whether industrial, institutional, commercial or residential.

We must also consider that asbestos is a friction and thermal insulating material, and that can be found in appliances such as refrigerators, industrial furnaces, water heaters and steam pipes and Hot water.

Asbestos fibers, when inhaled, represent a health risk. There is no need to fear when they are enclosed or tightly bound in a product such as a wall covering or floor covering, since they are not found in ambient air. By cons, there is a potential hazard when asbestos-containing material deteriorates (wear, breakage, accident, water damage) or during maintenance, repair or construction. For any manipulation or deterioration of a product containing asbestos may cause detachment and dispersal of fiber, and generate a high concentration of their presence in the air. You can look on the Gouvernement of Canada to learn more on health risks of asbestos.


SOURCES OF ASBESTOS IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

Because asbestos is a reinforcing material, insulation and fireproofing useful, it has been widely used in building materials such as:

  • Plaster on wooden slats
  • Gypsum drywall
  • Joint compounds and stucco
  • Deco ceiling moldings
  • Plaster on wire mesh
  • Gypsum - plaster textured walls
  • Textured coatings and paints
  • Shingles and roofing tar
  • Caulking on windows and doors
  • Linoleum and vinyl floor tile
  • Suspended ceiling tiles
  • Flexible ventilation seals
  • Electrical wiring
  • Water heaters and pipes
  • Ventilation ducts
  • Water pipes and sewer
  • Thermal Insulation Board
  • Insulation, hot water pipe
  • Furnaces, incinerators and chimneys
  • Wall panels of asbestos cement
  • Insulation of refrigeration equipment
  • Insulation, steam lines
  • Flocking, insulating projection
  • Boilers and Tanks

Plasterers are added asbestos "chrysotile" or vermiculite powder (which may also contain asbestos) to enhance properties: better enforcement, less cracking and faster time to cure. It is therefore important that the owner or his representative shall ensure that the composition of this material prior to renovation, redevelopment or demolition during which the plaster surfaces would be affected. Gypsum is a material used in the manufacture of walls, partitions, ceilings and other elements of the majority of buildings constructed before 1970, after which it is gradually replaced by gypsum.

We suggest you Refer to the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety for more learning on asbestos at home.

THE VERMICULITE


Vermiculite is a mineral clay used primarily for loft insulation, commonly referred attic (attic), and granaries, but sometimes the material is also found in the walls or as sub-floor insulation. This insulating ore has a health hazard when it contains asbestos type "amphibole" which has volatile fibers. These remain longer in the lungs and consequently may cause damage and disease. Only a laboratory analysis of vermiculite samples to detect the presence of asbestos in this category.

Bag of vermiculite and zonolite containing asbestos
Close up of vermiculite and zonolite containing asbestos

It is recommended to require an analysis of insulating materials before making any real estate transaction. You'll be able to be well informed about the presence of asbestos or not, and if the results are positive, you will know by the kind and concentration.


The term popularized Zonolite. Confused the term and Zonolite vermiculite. The vermiculite was mined in the 1960s to Libby in Montana under the trade name Zonolite. Mining operations on the Libby site were halted in 1990 following problems due to asbestos. It has been used in over 40 million homes in North America.


MINERAL NOMENCLATURE ASBESTOS BY GROUPS


Serpentine group

Fiber curves > Chrysotile or white asbestos is one (1) fibrous form which is available in three (3) species: clinochrysotile the parachrysotile and orthochrysotile. It represents 94 % of world asbestos market.

GROUPS OF AMPHIBOLE

Straight fibers> amphibole asbestos or blue / brown / green include five (5) fibrous forms, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite, actinolite and anthophyllite. They represent 6% of the global market and are present in 50% of vermiculite.

Asbestos is the generic name for a variety of fibrous minerals found naturally in rock formations around the world. Because asbestos fibers are strong, durable, and flame retardants, they have been widely used in industry, mainly in the construction and friction materials. The Commercial asbestos fibers belong to two main mineralogical groups: serpentine (chrysotile) and amphibole (tremolite, actinolite and others).


Amphibole asbestos often contains more iron and resists acid and at very high temperatures; this is why it has been widely used in industrial furnaces and heating systems. However, when inhaled, the amphibole fibers remain in the lungs longer than chrysotile fibers. They are therefore likely to inflict damage and cause diseases including cancer. Amphibole asbestos have the therefore been subject to stringent controls and were largely replaced.

Chrysotile is the only serpentine asbestos present in almost all asbestos products on the market today and it is the form of asbestos most exploited. The structure and chemical composition of chrysotile differ amphibole. It is generally known that chrysotile asbestos is less powerful and has fewer side effects on health than amphibole. Because there is a risk of accumulation should be avoided which gathers dust (wall rugs, heavy curtains, non-washable stuffed animals). The asbestos content of a product does not necessarily indicate a health risk. If the asbestos fibers are encapsulated or strongly linked in a matrix, the risk of breathing is minimal. The main problem lies in the amphibole asbestos fiber type called "friable" (which come off easily) that were sprayed in buildings until the 1970s People working in construction, maintenance and renovation old buildings should take extra care in handling this asbestos.

HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH ASBESTOS


Danger absbestos, health hazards

According to some statistics, 150,000 Canadians working in the field of construction and in industry may be exposed to the scene of their work, to doses more or less harmful asbestos. Construction workers are most at risk of being exposed to large amounts of asbestos, especially during renovation and demolition where it is badly handled or removed. The risk is also high in the field of conservation and maintenance of historic vocation in buildings where asbestos is present. Adverse health consequences go hand in hand with the degree of exposure to this mineral. For cons, the symptoms of the disease develop slowly and may take several years after exposure before they occur. The air containing airborne asbestos fibers is a real danger, because after inhalation, the lung tissue becomes impregnated with these fibers, drowns them, and this contamination can lead to serious consequences such as asbestosis, mesothelioma or lung cancer.


Asbestosis, though it is a non-cancerous disease is degenerative. It is caused by asbestos fibers which constantly irritate lung tissue. Permanent scars are formed and affect breathing: the supply of oxygen in the blood suffers. There is no remedy to cure this disease.


Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer. His tumor (or metastasis) propagate through the membrane that covers and protects most internal organs including the lungs and heart. 3) The greatest cause of death as a result of exposure to asbestos dust, lung cancer remains. A strong majority of victims comes from asbestos workers: extractors, crushers and manufacturers.


When asbestos-containing materials are damaged, particles and fibers spread in the air. Being in a venue of this kind of operation is therefore a health risk. For against, the fragmentation of such materials requires great forces; since they are generally strong and durable. The spread can occur during repairs, when working renovations or demolition. To be harmful, the effects of asbestos on health should meet the following factors:

  • The duration of exposure;
  • The frequency of exposure;
  • The combined effect with smoking;
  • The fiber concentration in the air;
  • The size of inhaled asbestos fibers;
  • The combined effect of other contaminants;
  • The elapsed time from first exposure.

ASBESTOS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

Apart from the places where work is carried out, natural or processed asbestos fibers are, generally present only in very small quantities in the soil, water and air. Air rural asbestos has a concentration ratio of about 10 times lower than that of large towns or cities; which corresponds to a rate 1000 times lower than today accepted levels in that industry related jobs. The exhibition has such small concentrations of asbestos fibers makes negligible risks to the environment. In terms of the raw water, some sources of supply, as a result of natural erosion may contain high levels of chrysotile asbestos fibers. There is no evidence that ingestion of these fibers is harmful to health, and traditional methods of water treatment greatly reduce their presence.

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